Singh Chawla D. Self-citation rates higher for men. Nature 2016;535:212
Men cite their own papers 56% more than women on average, according to an analysis of 1.5 million studies published between 1779 and 2011. The analysis looked at papers across disciplines in the digital library JSTOR and found that men’s self-citation rate had risen to 70% more than women’s over the past two decades, despite an increase of women in academia in recent years. According to the study authors, men view their abilities more positively than women do and face fewer societal penalties for self-promotion than do women.